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Germanium: properties of free atoms

Germanium atoms have 32 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.4.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral germanium is  [Ar].3d10.4s2.4p2 and the term symbol is  3P0.

Kossel shell structure of germanium
Schematic electronic configuration of germanium.
Kossel shell structure of germanium
The Kossel shell structure of germanium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of germanium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of germanium is 119 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of germanium are given below.

Ionisation energies of germanium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st762.18
2nd1537.46
3rd3286.1
4th4410.9
5th8732
6th11180
7th13980
8th17020
9th20500
10th24320
11th27590
12th31450 (calculated)
13th35410
14th39270
15th50930
16th54740
17th58770
18th63950
19th68190
20th71790
21st80770
Ionisation energies of germanium
Ionisation energies of germanium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for germanium
1s31.2937  
2s23.36 2p28.08  
3s17.79 3p17.01 3d16.25  
4s8.04 4p6.78 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for germanium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s11103 [1]
L I2s1414.6 [2, values derived from reference 1]
L II2p1/21248.1 [2, values derived from reference 1]
L III2p3/21217 [2, values derived from reference 1]
M I3s180.1 [2]
M II3p1/2124.9 [2]
M III3p3/2120.8 [2]
M IV3d3/229.8 [2]
M V3d5/229.2 [2]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.