โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Thorium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้‡ท
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Thorium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Thorium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Thorium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืชื•ืจื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Torio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใƒˆใƒชใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Tório
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะขะพั€ะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Torio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Torium

Thorium: properties of free atoms

Thorium atoms have 90 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.32.18.10.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral thorium is  [Rn].6d2.7s2 and the term symbol is  3F2.

Kossel shell structure of thorium
Schematic electronic configuration of thorium.
Kossel shell structure of thorium
The Kossel shell structure of thorium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of thorium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of thorium is (no data) kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of thorium are given below.

Ionisation energies of thorium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st608.50
2nd1167
3rd1768
4th2764.1
5th5600
6th6670
7th7910
8th9170
9th11400
10th12800
11th15900
12th17500 (calculated)
13th25300
14th27500
15th29900
16th32400
17th34900
18th37500
19th40900
20th43500
21st46300
Ionisation energies of thorium
Ionisation energies of thorium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for thorium
1s(no data)  
2s(no data) 2p(no data)  
3s(no data) 3p(no data) 3d(no data)  
4s(no data) 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for thorium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s109651 [1]
L I2s20472 [1]
L II2p1/219693 [1]
L III2p3/216300 [1]
M I3s5182 [1]
M II3p1/24830 [1]
M III3p3/24046 [1]
M IV3d3/23491 [1]
M V3d5/23332 [1]
N I4s1330 [2]
N II4p1/21168 [2]
N III4p3/2966.4 [3]
N IV4d3/2712.1 [3]
N V4d5/2675.2 [3]
N VI4f5/2342.4 [3]
N VII4f7/2333.1 [3]
O I5s290 [2, one-particle approximation not valid owing to short core-hole lifetime]
O II5p1/2229 [2, one-particle approximation not valid owing to short core-hole lifetime]
O III5p3/2182 [2, one-particle approximation not valid owing to short core-hole lifetime]
O IV5d3/292.5 [3]
O V5d5/285.4 [3]
P I6s41.4 [3]
P II6p1/224.5 [3]
P III6p3/216.6 [3]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.