โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Antimony
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้Šป
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Antimoon
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Antimoine
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Antimon
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืื ื˜ื™ืžื•ืŸ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Antimonio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใ‚ขใƒณใƒใƒขใƒณ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Antimônio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะกัƒั€ัŒะผะฐ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Antimonio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Antimon

Antimony: properties of free atoms

Antimony atoms have 51 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.18.5.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral antimony is  [Kr].4d10.5s2.5p3 and the term symbol is  4S3/2.

Kossel shell structure of antimony
Schematic electronic configuration of antimony.
Kossel shell structure of antimony
The Kossel shell structure of antimony.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of antimony.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of antimony is 103.2 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of antimony are given below.

Ionisation energies of antimony
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st830.58
2nd1604.2
3rd2443.35
4th4226.4
5th5307
6th9601
7th11290
8th13410
9th15630
10th17850
11th20650
12th22960 (calculated)
13th25600
14th28200
15th30600
16th40500
17th43100
18th46200
19th49200
20th53300
21st56300
Ionisation energies of antimony
Ionisation energies of antimony.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for antimony
1s49.97  
2s37.60 2p46.87  
3s33.21 3p33.18 3d36.80  
4s23.54 4p22.18 4d18.97 4f(no data)
5s11.61 5p9.99 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for antimony. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s30491 [1]
L I2s4698 [1]
L II2p1/24380 [1]
L III2p3/24132 [1]
M I3s940 [3]
M II3p1/2812.7 [3]
M III3p3/2766.4 [3]
M IV3d3/2537.5 [3]
M V3d5/2528.2 [3]
N I4s153.2 [3]
N II4p1/295.6 [3, one-particle approximation not valid owing to short core-hole lifetime]
N III4p3/295.6 [3, one-particle approximation not valid owing to short core-hole lifetime]
N IV4d3/233.3 [3]
N V4d5/232.1 [3]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.