▸▸
  • 🇬🇧 Lanthanum
  • 🇨🇳 鑭
  • 🇳🇱 Lanthaan
  • 🇫🇷 Lanthane
  • 🇩🇪 Lanthan
  • 🇮🇱 לנתן
  • 🇮🇹 Lantanio
  • 🇯🇵 ランタン
  • 🇵🇹 Lantânio
  • 🇷🇺 Лантан
  • 🇪🇸 Lantano
  • 🇸🇪 Lantan

Lanthanum: properties of free atoms

Lanthanum atoms have 57 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.18.9.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral lanthanum is  [Xe].5d1.6s2 and the term symbol is  2D3/2.

Kossel shell structure of lanthanum
Schematic electronic configuration of lanthanum.
Kossel shell structure of lanthanum
The Kossel shell structure of lanthanum.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of lanthanum.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of lanthanum is 48 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of lanthanum are given below.

Ionisation energies of lanthanum
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st538.09
2nd1079.18
3rd1850.33
4th4820
5th5940
6th7140
7th8490
8th10130
9th11480
10th14610
11th16280
12th26530 (calculated)
13th29200
14th32000
15th35100
16th37900
17th41600
18th44800
19th48000
20th51400
21st54600
Ionisation energies of lanthanum
Ionisation energies of lanthanum.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for lanthanum
1s55.87  
2s41.95 2p52.80  
3s37.94 3p38.14 3d43.06  
4s28.80 4p27.71 4d24.73 4f1.36
5s17.81 5p15.90 5d(no data)  
6s9.31 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for lanthanum. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s38925 [1]
L I2s6266 [1]
L II2p1/25891 [1]
L III2p3/25483 [1]
M I3s1362 [2, values derived from reference 1]
M II3p1/21209 [2, values derived from reference 1]
M III3p3/21128 [2, values derived from reference 1]
M IV3d3/2853 [2]
M V3d5/2836 [2]
N I4s274.7 [2]
N II4p1/2205.8 [1]
N III4p3/2196 [2]
N IV4d3/2105.3 [2]
N V4d5/2102.5 [2]
N VI4f5/2 -
N VII4f7/2 -
O I5s34.3 [2]
O II5p1/219.3 [2]
O III5p3/216.8 [2]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.