โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Krypton
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ๆฐช
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Krypton
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Krypton
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Krypton
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืงืจื™ืคื˜ื•ืŸ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Cripto
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใ‚ฏใƒชใƒ—ใƒˆใƒณ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Criptônio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะšั€ะธะฟั‚ะพะฝ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Kriptón
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Krypton

Krypton: properties of free atoms

Krypton atoms have 36 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.8.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral krypton is  [Ar].3d10.4s2.4p6 and the term symbol is  1S0.

Kossel shell structure of krypton
Schematic electronic configuration of krypton.
Kossel shell structure of krypton
The Kossel shell structure of krypton.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of krypton.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of krypton is 0 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of krypton are given below.

Ionisation energies of krypton
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st1350.76
2nd2350.37
3rd3457.8
4th4906
5th6242
6th7573
7th10530
8th12140
9th22480
10th25860
11th29720
12th33770 (calculated)
13th37730
14th43030
15th47470
16th52100
17th57020
18th61750
19th75740
20th80240
21st85180
Ionisation energies of krypton
Ionisation energies of krypton.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for krypton
1s35.2316  
2s26.40 2p32.05  
3s21.03 3p20.43 3d20.63  
4s11.32 4p9.77 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for krypton. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s14326 [1]
L I2s1921 [1]
L II2p1/21730.9 [2]
L III2p3/21678.4 [2]
M I3s292.8 [2]
M II3p1/2222.2 [2]
M III3p3/2214.4 [1]
M IV3d3/295 [2]
M V3d5/293.8 [2]
N I4s27.5 [2]
N II4p1/214.1 [2]
N III4p3/214.1 [2]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.