โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Argon
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ๆฐฌ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Argon
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Argon
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Argon
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืืจื’ื•ืŸ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Argo
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใ‚ขใƒซใ‚ดใƒณ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Argão
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะั€ะณะพะฝ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Argón
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Argon

Argon: properties of free atoms

Argon atoms have 18 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.8.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral argon is  [Ne].3s2.3p6 and the term symbol is  1S0.

Kossel shell structure of argon
Schematic electronic configuration of argon.
Kossel shell structure of argon
The Kossel shell structure of argon.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of argon.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of argon is 0 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of argon are given below.

Ionisation energies of argon
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st1520.57
2nd2665.86
3rd3930
4th5749
5th7221
6th8808
7th12004
8th13841
9th40775
10th46290
11th52141
12th59724 (inferred)
13th66140
14th72860
15th82540
16th88610
17th397584
18th427065
Ionisation energies of argon
Ionisation energies of argon.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for argon
1s17.5075  
2s12.23 2p14.01  
3s7.76 3p6.76 3d(no data)  
4s(no data) 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for argon. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s3205.9 [2]
L I2s326.3 [2]
L II2p1/2250.6 [3]
L III2p3/2248.4 [2]
M I3s29.3 [2]
M II3p1/215.9 [2]
M III3p3/215.7 [2]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.