โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Cobalt
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้ˆท
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Kobalt
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Cobalt
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Cobalt
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืงื•ื‘ืœื˜
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Cobalto
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใ‚ณใƒใƒซใƒˆ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Cobalto
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะšะพะฑะฐะปัŒั‚
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Cobalto
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Kobolt

Cobalt: properties of free atoms

Cobalt atoms have 27 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.15.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral cobalt is  [Ar].3d7.4s2 and the term symbol is  4F9/2.

Kossel shell structure of cobalt
Schematic electronic configuration of cobalt.
Kossel shell structure of cobalt
The Kossel shell structure of cobalt.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of cobalt.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of cobalt is 63.7 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of cobalt are given below.

Ionisation energies of cobalt
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st760.40
2nd1648.39
3rd3232.3
4th4947
5th7671
6th9842
7th12440
8th15230
9th17960
10th26570
11th29460
12th32430 (inferred)
13th36520
14th39560
15th42560
16th49400
17th52740
18th135000
19th145000
20th155000
21st166000
Ionisation energies of cobalt
Ionisation energies of cobalt.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for cobalt
1s26.3668  
2s19.41 2p23.09  
3s14.32 3p13.43 3d11.86  
4s5.58 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for cobalt. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s7709 [1]
L I2s925.1 [3]
L II2p1/2793.2 [3]
L III2p3/2778.1 [3]
M I3s101 [3]
M II3p1/258.9 [3]
M III3p3/259.9 [3]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.