โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Carbon
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ็ขณ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Koolstof
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Carbone
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Kohlenstoff
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืคื—ืžืŸ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Carbonio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ็‚ญ็ด 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Carbono
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะฃะณะปะตั€ะพะด
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Carbono
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Kol

Carbon: properties of free atoms

Carbon atoms have 6 electrons and the shell structure is  2.4.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral carbon is  [He].2s2.2p2 and the term symbol is  3P0.

Kossel shell structure of carbon
Schematic electronic configuration of carbon.
Kossel shell structure of carbon
The Kossel shell structure of carbon.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of carbon.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of carbon is 153.9 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of carbon are given below.

Ionisation energies of carbon
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st1086.45
2nd2352.62
3rd4620.47
4th6222.68
5th37831.0
6th47277.1
Ionisation energies of carbon
Ionisation energies of carbon.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for carbon
1s5.6727  
2s3.22 2p3.14  
3s(no data) 3p(no data) 3d(no data)  
4s(no data) 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for carbon. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s284.2 [2]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.