โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Indium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้Šฆ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Indium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Indium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Indium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืื™ื ื“ื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Indio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใ‚คใƒณใ‚ธใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Índio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะ˜ะฝะดะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Indio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Indium

Indium: properties of free atoms

Indium atoms have 49 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.18.3.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral indium is  [Kr].4d10.5s2.5p1 and the term symbol is  2P1/2.

Kossel shell structure of indium
Schematic electronic configuration of indium.
Kossel shell structure of indium
The Kossel shell structure of indium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of indium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of indium is 28.9 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of indium are given below.

Ionisation energies of indium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st558.30
2nd1820.72
3rd2705.85
4th5350
5th6686
6th8684
7th10520
8th12550
9th15050
10th17170
11th19390
12th21810 (calculated)
13th24000
14th32900
15th35500
16th38200
17th41000
18th44600
19th48000
20th54000
21st57300
Ionisation energies of indium
Ionisation energies of indium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for indium
1s48.01  
2s36.12 2p44.90  
3s31.63 3p31.52 3d34.68  
4s21.76 4p20.37 4d16.94 4f(no data)
5s9.51 5p8.47 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for indium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s27940 [1]
L I2s4238 [1]
L II2p1/23938 [1]
L III2p3/23730 [1]
M I3s827.2 [3]
M II3p1/2703.2 [3]
M III3p3/2665.3 [3]
M IV3d3/2451.4 [3]
M V3d5/2443.9 [3]
N I4s122.9 [3]
N II4p1/273.5 [3, one-particle approximation not valid owing to short core-hole lifetime]
N III4p3/273.5 [3, one-particle approximation not valid owing to short core-hole lifetime]
N IV4d3/217.7 [3]
N V4d5/216.9 [3]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.