โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Terbium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้‹ฑ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Terbium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Terbium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Terbium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ื˜ืจื‘ื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Terbio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใƒ†ใƒซใƒ“ใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Térbio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะขะตั€ะฑะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Terbio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Terbium

Terbium: properties of free atoms

Terbium atoms have 65 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.27.8.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral terbium is  [Xe].4f9.6s2 and the term symbol is  6H15/2.

Kossel shell structure of terbium
Schematic electronic configuration of terbium.
Kossel shell structure of terbium
The Kossel shell structure of terbium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of terbium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of terbium is 50 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of terbium are given below.

Ionisation energies of terbium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st565.77
2nd1110.8
3rd2110
4th3790
5th6420
6th8680
7th10400
8th12100
9th13800
10th16200
11th17900
12th20800 (calculated)
13th24100
14th26300
15th28400
16th31400
17th34500
18th37900
19th41200
20th59100
21st62800
Ionisation energies of terbium
Ionisation energies of terbium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for terbium
1s63.73  
2s47.97 2p60.69  
3s44.55 3p45.01 3d51.30  
4s34.02 4p33.40 4d30.31 4f25.86
5s19.17 5p16.96 5d(no data)  
6s8.30 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for terbium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s51996 [1]
L I2s8708 [1]
L II2p1/28252 [1]
L III2p3/27514 [1]
M I3s1968 [1]
M II3p1/21768 [1]
M III3p3/21611 [1]
M IV3d3/21276.9 [2]
M V3d5/21241.1 [2]
N I4s396 [2]
N II4p1/2322.4 [2]
N III4p3/2284.1 [2]
N IV4d3/2150.5 [2]
N V4d5/2150.5 [2]
N VI4f5/27.7 [2]
N VII4f7/22.4 [2]
O I5s45.6 [2]
O II5p1/228.7 [2]
O III5p3/222.6 [2]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.