โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Rhenium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้Œธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Rhenium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Rhénium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Rhenium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืจื ื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Renio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใƒฌใƒ‹ใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Rênio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะ ะตะฝะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Renio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Rhenium

Rhenium: properties of free atoms

Rhenium atoms have 75 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.32.13.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral rhenium is  [Xe].4f14.5d5.6s2 and the term symbol is  6S5/2.

Kossel shell structure of rhenium
Schematic electronic configuration of rhenium.
Kossel shell structure of rhenium
The Kossel shell structure of rhenium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of rhenium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of rhenium is 14.5 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of rhenium are given below.

Ionisation energies of rhenium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st755.82
2nd1600
3rd2610
4th3770
5th5010
6th6460
7th8000
8th13900
9th15900
10th18000
11th20100
12th22800 (calculated)
13th25900
14th28100
15th31800
16th36400
17th38900
18th41400
19th45900
20th50200
21st55000
Ionisation energies of rhenium
Ionisation energies of rhenium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for rhenium
1s73.55  
2s55.41 2p70.56  
3s52.65 3p53.43 3d61.45  
4s41.36 4p40.37 4d38.05 4f35.92
5s24.36 5p22.14 5d17.38  
6s10.12 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for rhenium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s71676 [1]
L I2s12527 [1]
L II2p1/211959 [1]
L III2p3/210535 [1]
M I3s2932 [1]
M II3p1/22682 [1]
M III3p3/22367 [1]
M IV3d3/21949 [1]
M V3d5/21883 [1]
N I4s625.4 [3]
N II4p1/2518.7 [3]
N III4p3/2446.8 [3]
N IV4d3/2273.9 [3]
N V4d5/2260.5 [3]
N VI4f5/242.9 [2]
N VII4f7/240.5 [2]
O I5s83 [3]
O II5p1/245.6 [3]
O III5p3/234.6 [2, values derived from reference 1]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.