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Technetium: properties of free atoms

Technetium atoms have 43 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.14.1.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral technetium is  [Kr].4d5.5s2 and the term symbol is  6S5/2.

Kossel shell structure of technetium
Schematic electronic configuration of technetium.
Kossel shell structure of technetium
The Kossel shell structure of technetium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of technetium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of technetium is 53 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of technetium are given below.

Ionisation energies of technetium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st686.92
2nd1472
3rd2851
4th3956
5th5500
6th6947
7th8490
8th14470
9th16310
10th18320
11th20650
12th23060 (calculated)
13th25300
14th30000
15th32700
16th58300
17th63200
18th68800
19th74600
20th80000
21st87200
Ionisation energies of technetium
Ionisation energies of technetium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for technetium
1s42.11  
2s31.63 2p38.94  
3s26.79 3p26.38 3d28.35  
4s17.20 4p15.81 4d12.88 4f(no data)
5s7.23 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for technetium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s21044 [1]
L I2s3043 [1]
L II2p1/22793 [1]
L III2p3/22677 [1]
M I3s544 [2]
M II3p1/2447.6 [2]
M III3p3/2417.7 [2]
M IV3d3/2257.6 [2]
M V3d5/2253.9 [2]
N I4s69.5 [2]
N II4p1/242.3 [2]
N III4p3/239.9 [2]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.