โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Seaborgium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ๐จญŽ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Seaborgium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Seaborgium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Seaborgium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืกื™ื‘ื•ืจื’ื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Seaborgio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใ‚ทใƒผใƒœใƒผใ‚ฎใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Seaborgium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะกะธะฑะพั€ะณะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Seaborgio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Seaborgium

Seaborgium: properties of free atoms

Seaborgium atoms have 106 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.32.32.12.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral seaborgium is  [Rn].5f14.6d4.7s2 (a guess based upon that of tungsten) and the term symbol is  5D0 (a guess based upon guessed electronic structure).

Kossel shell structure of seaborgium
Schematic electronic configuration of seaborgium.
Kossel shell structure of seaborgium
The Kossel shell structure of seaborgium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of seaborgium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of seaborgium is (no data) kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of seaborgium are given below.

Ionisation energies of seaborgium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st753 (inferred)
2nd1650
3rd2490
4th3430
5th4550
6th5720
7th10500
8th11800
9th14700
10th16400
11th19300
12th21600 (calculated)
13th24200
14th27500
15th29500
16th32700
Ionisation energies of seaborgium
Ionisation energies of seaborgium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for seaborgium
1s(no data)  
2s(no data) 2p(no data)  
3s(no data) 3p(no data) 3d(no data)  
4s(no data) 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for seaborgium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.