โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Molybdenum
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้‰ฌ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Molybdeen
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Molybdène
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช MolybdŠn
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืžื•ืœื™ื‘ื“ืŸ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Molibdeno
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใƒขใƒชใƒ–ใƒ‡ใƒณ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Molibdênio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะœะพะปะธะฑะดะตะฝ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Molibdeno
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Molybden

Molybdenum: properties of free atoms

Molybdenum atoms have 42 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.13.1.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral molybdenum is  [Kr].4d5.5s1 and the term symbol is  7S3.

Kossel shell structure of molybdenum
Schematic electronic configuration of molybdenum.
Kossel shell structure of molybdenum
The Kossel shell structure of molybdenum.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of molybdenum.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of molybdenum is 71.9 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of molybdenum are given below.

Ionisation energies of molybdenum
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st684.32
2nd1559
3rd2618
4th3891
5th5250
6th6641
7th12120
8th13860
9th15840
10th17980
11th20190
12th22220 (inferred)
13th26900
14th29200
15th52500
16th57000
17th62300
18th67700
19th73100
20th80000
21st85900
Ionisation energies of molybdenum
Ionisation energies of molybdenum.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for molybdenum
1s41.13  
2s30.88 2p37.97  
3s25.98 3p25.51 3d27.33  
4s16.41 4p15.05 4d12.44 4f(no data)
5s6.98 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for molybdenum. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s20000 [1]
L I2s2866 [1]
L II2p1/22625 [1]
L III2p3/22520 [1]
M I3s506.3 [3]
M II3p1/2411.6 [3]
M III3p3/2394 [3]
M IV3d3/2231.1 [3]
M V3d5/2227.9 [3]
N I4s63.2 [3]
N II4p1/237.6 [3]
N III4p3/235.5 [3]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.