โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Tin
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้Œซ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Tin
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท étain
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Zinn
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ื‘ื“ื™ืœ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Stagno
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใ‚นใ‚บ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Estanho
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะžะปะพะฒะพ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Estaño
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Tenn

Tin: properties of free atoms

Tin atoms have 50 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.18.4.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral tin is  [Kr].4d10.5s2.5p2 and the term symbol is  3P0.

Kossel shell structure of tin
Schematic electronic configuration of tin.
Kossel shell structure of tin
The Kossel shell structure of tin.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of tin.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of tin is 107.3 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of tin are given below.

Ionisation energies of tin
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st708.58
2nd1411.88
3rd2943.4
4th3931
5th7432
6th9070
7th10890
8th13030
9th15050
10th17750
11th20070
12th22380 (calculated)
13th24900
14th27200
15th36600
16th39300
17th42200
18th45000
19th48800
20th51800
21st58700
Ionisation energies of tin
Ionisation energies of tin.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for tin
1s48.99  
2s36.86 2p45.89  
3s32.42 3p32.35 3d35.74  
4s22.66 4p21.27 4d17.97 4f(no data)
5s10.63 5p9.10 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for tin. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s29200 [1]
L I2s4465 [1]
L II2p1/24156 [1]
L III2p3/23929 [1]
M I3s884.7 [3]
M II3p1/2756.5 [3]
M III3p3/2714.6 [3]
M IV3d3/2493.2 [3]
M V3d5/2484.9 [3]
N I4s137.1 [3]
N II4p1/283.6 [3, one-particle approximation not valid owing to short core-hole lifetime]
N III4p3/283.6 [3, one-particle approximation not valid owing to short core-hole lifetime]
N IV4d3/224.9 [3]
N V4d5/223.9 [3]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.