โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Zirconium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้‹ฏ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Zirkonium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Zirconium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Zirconium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ื–ื™ืจืงื•ื ื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Zirconio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใ‚ธใƒซใ‚ณใƒ‹ใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Zircônio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะฆะธั€ะบะพะฝะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Circonio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Zirkonium

Zirconium: properties of free atoms

Zirconium atoms have 40 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.10.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral zirconium is  [Kr].4d2.5s2 and the term symbol is  3F2.

Kossel shell structure of zirconium
Schematic electronic configuration of zirconium.
Kossel shell structure of zirconium
The Kossel shell structure of zirconium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of zirconium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of zirconium is 41.1 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of zirconium are given below.

Ionisation energies of zirconium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st640.10
2nd1267
3rd2236
4th3320.87
5th7752
6th9299
7th10810
8th12900
9th14760
10th16600
11th20730
12th22790
13th41100
14th45300
15th50200
16th55300
17th60000
18th66600
19th71900
20th77500
21st83300
Ionisation energies of zirconium
Ionisation energies of zirconium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for zirconium
1s39.16  
2s29.37 2p35.99  
3s24.36 3p23.85 3d25.57  
4s14.90 4p13.46 4d13.07 4f(no data)
5s6.45 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for zirconium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s17998 [1]
L I2s2532 [1]
L II2p1/22307 [1]
L III2p3/22223 [1]
M I3s430.3 [3]
M II3p1/2343.5 [3]
M III3p3/2329.8 [3]
M IV3d3/2181.1 [3]
M V3d5/2178.8 [3]
N I4s50.6 [3]
N II4p1/228.5 [3]
N III4p3/227.1 [3]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.