โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Gadolinium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้‡“
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Gadolinium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Gadolinium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Gadolinium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ื’ื“ื•ืœื™ื ื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Gadolinio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใ‚ฌใƒ‰ใƒชใƒ‹ใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Gadolínio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะ“ะฐะดะพะปะธะฝะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Gadolinio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Gadolinium

Gadolinium: properties of free atoms

Gadolinium atoms have 64 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.25.9.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral gadolinium is  [Xe].4f7.5d1.6s2 and the term symbol is  9D2.

Kossel shell structure of gadolinium
Schematic electronic configuration of gadolinium.
Kossel shell structure of gadolinium
The Kossel shell structure of gadolinium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of gadolinium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of gadolinium is 50 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of gadolinium are given below.

Ionisation energies of gadolinium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st593.37
2nd1165.2
3rd1980
4th4290
5th6250
6th8590
7th10200
8th11900
9th13900
10th15900
11th17700
12th20600 (calculated)
13th23700
14th25900
15th27800
16th30800
17th34000
18th37100
19th54500
20th58000
21st61700
Ionisation energies of gadolinium
Ionisation energies of gadolinium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for gadolinium
1s62.74  
2s47.22 2p59.71  
3s43.71 3p44.15 3d50.28  
4s33.44 4p32.65 4d29.63 4f25.01
5s18.88 5p16.76 5d(no data)  
6s8.21 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for gadolinium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s50239 [1]
L I2s8376 [1]
L II2p1/27930 [1]
L III2p3/27243 [1]
M I3s1881 [1]
M II3p1/21688 [1]
M III3p3/21544 [1]
M IV3d3/21221.9 [2]
M V3d5/21189.6 [2]
N I4s378.6 [2]
N II4p1/2286 [1]
N III4p3/2271 [1]
N IV4d3/2 -
N V4d5/2142.6 [2]
N VI4f5/28.6 [2]
N VII4f7/28.6 [2]
O I5s36 [1]
O II5p1/220 [1]
O III5p3/220 [1]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.