โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Californium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้‰ฒ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Californium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Californium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Californium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืงืœื™ืคื•ืจื ื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Californio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใ‚ซใƒชใƒ›ใƒซใƒ‹ใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Californium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะšะฐะปะธั„ะพั€ะฝะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Californio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Californium

Californium: properties of free atoms

Californium atoms have 98 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.32.28.8.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral californium is  [Rn].5f10.7s2 and the term symbol is  5I8.

Kossel shell structure of californium
Schematic electronic configuration of californium.
Kossel shell structure of californium
The Kossel shell structure of californium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of californium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of californium is (no data) kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of californium are given below.

Ionisation energies of californium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st606.09
2nd1160
3rd2160
4th3640
5th5010
6th7240
7th8780
8th10900
9th12800
10th14700
11th17200
12th19400 (calculated)
13th21700
14th23800
15th25600
16th27600
17th29900
18th32200
19th35500
20th37600
21st51700
Ionisation energies of californium
Ionisation energies of californium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for californium
1s(no data)  
2s(no data) 2p(no data)  
3s(no data) 3p(no data) 3d(no data)  
4s(no data) 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for californium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.