โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Astatine
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ็ ˆ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Astaat
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Astate
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Astat
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืืกื˜ื˜ื™ืŸ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Astato
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใ‚ขใ‚นใ‚ฟใƒใƒณ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Astato
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะัั‚ะฐั‚
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Astato
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Astat

Astatine: properties of free atoms

Astatine atoms have 85 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.32.18.7.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral astatine is  [Xe].4f14.5d10.6s2.6p5 and the term symbol is  2P3/2.

Kossel shell structure of astatine
Schematic electronic configuration of astatine.
Kossel shell structure of astatine
The Kossel shell structure of astatine.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of astatine.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of astatine is 270.1 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of astatine are given below.

Ionisation energies of astatine
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st899.00
2nd1725
3rd2565
4th3826
5th4862
6th6950
7th8210
8th12600
9th14400
10th16300
11th18500
12th20500 (calculated)
13th22800
14th25400
15th27700
16th30000
17th32300
18th43600
19th46400
20th49200
21st52100
Ionisation energies of astatine
Ionisation energies of astatine.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for astatine
1s83.36  
2s62.67 2p80.45  
3s60.35 3p61.50 3d71.58  
4s49.34 4p48.48 4d47.05 4f47.24
5s32.93 5p31.04 5d26.34  
6s17.30 6p15.16  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for astatine. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s95730 [1]
L I2s17493 [1]
L II2p1/216785 [1]
L III2p3/214214 [1]
M I3s4317 [1]
M II3p1/24008 [1]
M III3p3/23426 [1]
M IV3d3/22909 [1]
M V3d5/22787 [1]
N I4s1042 [2]
N II4p1/2886 [2]
N III4p3/2740 [2]
N IV4d3/2533 [2]
N V4d5/2507 [1]
N VI4f5/2210 [2]
N VII4f7/2210 [2]
O I5s195 [2]
O II5p1/2148 [2]
O III5p3/2115 [2]
O IV5d3/240 [2]
O V5d5/240 [2]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.