โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Bismuth
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้‰
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Bismut
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Bismuth
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Bismut
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ื‘ื™ืกืžื•ืช
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Bismuto
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใƒ“ใ‚นใƒžใ‚น
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Bismuto
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะ’ะธัะผัƒั‚
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Bismuto
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Vismut

Bismuth: properties of free atoms

Bismuth atoms have 83 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.32.18.5.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral bismuth is  [Xe].4f14.5d10.6s2.6p3 and the term symbol is  4S3/2.

Kossel shell structure of bismuth
Schematic electronic configuration of bismuth.
Kossel shell structure of bismuth
The Kossel shell structure of bismuth.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of bismuth.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of bismuth is 91.2 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of bismuth are given below.

Ionisation energies of bismuth
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st702.95
2nd1611.6
3rd2466.5
4th4378
5th5292.8
6th8530
7th9940
8th11800
9th13800
10th15500
11th17700
12th20100 (calculated)
13th22100
14th24300
15th26300
16th35700
17th39500
18th42100
19th44800
20th50200
21st53100
Ionisation energies of bismuth
Ionisation energies of bismuth.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for bismuth
1s81.40  
2s61.18 2p78.47  
3s58.89 3p59.93 3d69.54  
4s47.71 4p46.85 4d45.24 4f45.07
5s31.03 5p29.02 5d24.24  
6s15.24 6p13.34  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for bismuth. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s90526 [1]
L I2s16388 [1]
L II2p1/215711 [1]
L III2p3/213419 [1]
M I3s3999 [1]
M II3p1/23696 [1]
M III3p3/23177 [1]
M IV3d3/22688 [1]
M V3d5/22580 [1]
N I4s939 [3]
N II4p1/2805.2 [3]
N III4p3/2678.8 [3]
N IV4d3/2464 [3]
N V4d5/2440.1 [3]
N VI4f5/2162.3 [3]
N VII4f7/2157 [3]
O I5s159.3 [2, values derived from reference 1]
O II5p1/2119 [3]
O III5p3/292.6 [3]
O IV5d3/226.9 [3]
O V5d5/223.8 [3]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.