Bismuth: the essentials
Bismuth atoms have 83 electrons and the shell structure is 220.127.116.11.18.5. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral bismuth is [Xe].4f14.5d10.6s2.6p3 and the term symbol of bismuth is 4S3/2.
Bismuth is a white, crystalline, brittle metal with a pinkish tinge. Bismuth is the most diamagnetic of all metals, and the thermal conductivity is lower than any metal, except mercury. It has a high electrical resistance, and has the highest Hall effect of any metal (that is, the greatest increase in electrical resistance when placed in a magnetic field).
Cartoon by Nick D Kim ([Science and Ink], used by permission).
Bismuth: physical properties
Bismuth: heat properties
- Melting point: 544.4 [271.3 °C (520.3 °F)] K
- Boiling point: 544.4 [271.3 °C (520.3 °F)] K
- Enthalpy of fusion: 20.5 kJ mol-1
Bismuth: atom sizes
- Atomic radius (empirical): 160 pm
- Molecular single bond covalent radius: 151 (coordination number 3) ppm
- van der Waals radius: [ 280 ] ppm
- Pauling electronegativity: 2.02 (Pauling units)
- Allred Rochow electronegativity: 1.67 (Pauling units)
- Mulliken-Jaffe electronegativity: 2.15 (20% s orbital)
Bismuth: orbital properties
- First ionisation energy: 702.95 kJ mol‑1
- Second ionisation energy: 1611.6 kJ mol‑1
- Third ionisation energy: 2466.5 kJ mol‑1
Bismuth: crystal structure
Bismuth: biological data
- Human abundance by weight: (no data) ppb by weight
Bismuth has no biological role. However it has been used for some time as a medicine (tripotassium dicitratobismuthate) for treatment of stomach upsets. In combination with antibiotics it is now used for treatment of some stomach ulcers. It is also to be found in haemorrhoid creams such as Anusol cream and Hemocaneas as bismuth oxide and in Anusol ointment as bismuth subgallate.
Reactions of bismuth as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.
Bismuth: binary compounds
Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of bismuth where known.
Bismuth: compound properties
Bond strengths; lattice energies of bismuth halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.
Bismuth: historyBismuth was discovered by known since ancient times in unknown at not known. Origin of name: from the German word "bisemutum".
Isolation: it is not normally necessary to make bismuth in the laboratory as it is available commercially. Bismuth is found in nature largely as bismite (Bi2O3), bismuthinite (Bi2S3), and bismutite [(BiO)2CO3]. However it is generally made as a byproduct of copper, lead,tin, silver, gold, and zinc plants. The final step involves a reduction of the oxide by charcoal.