โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Rutherfordium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้‘ช
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Rutherfordium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Rutherfordium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Rutherfordium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืจื•ืชืจืคื•ืจื“ื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Rutherfordio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใƒฉใ‚ถใƒ›ใƒผใ‚ธใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Rutherfordium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะ ะตะทะตั€ั„ะพั€ะดะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Rutherfordio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Rutherfordium

Rutherfordium: properties of free atoms

Rutherfordium atoms have 104 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.32.32.10.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral rutherfordium is  [Rn].5f14.6d2.7s2 (a guess based upon that of hafnium) and the term symbol is  3F2 (tentative).

Kossel shell structure of rutherfordium
Schematic electronic configuration of rutherfordium.
Kossel shell structure of rutherfordium
The Kossel shell structure of rutherfordium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of rutherfordium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of rutherfordium is (no data) kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of rutherfordium are given below.

Ionisation energies of rutherfordium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st581 (calculated)
2nd1380
3rd2300
4th3070
5th6180
6th7430
7th9840
8th11500
9th14100
10th16300
11th18600
12th21700 (calculated)
13th23500
14th26500
Ionisation energies of rutherfordium
Ionisation energies of rutherfordium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for rutherfordium
1s(no data)  
2s(no data) 2p(no data)  
3s(no data) 3p(no data) 3d(no data)  
4s(no data) 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for rutherfordium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.