โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Holmium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้ˆฅ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Holmium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Holmium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Holmium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ื”ื•ืœืžื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Olmio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใƒ›ใƒซใƒŸใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Hólmio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะ“ะพะปัŒะผะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Holmio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Holmium

Holmium: properties of free atoms

Holmium atoms have 67 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.29.8.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral holmium is  [Xe].4f11.6s2 and the term symbol is  4I15/2.

Kossel shell structure of holmium
Schematic electronic configuration of holmium.
Kossel shell structure of holmium
The Kossel shell structure of holmium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of holmium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of holmium is 50 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of holmium are given below.

Ionisation energies of holmium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st580.99
2nd1136.7
3rd2200
4th4100
5th6170
6th9170
7th10800
8th12400
9th15000
10th16700
11th19000
12th22100 (calculated)
13th25400
14th27400
15th29400
16th32800
17th36000
18th39400
19th42600
20th45800
21st49200
Ionisation energies of holmium
Ionisation energies of holmium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for holmium
1s65.69  
2s49.46 2p62.67  
3s46.24 3p46.75 3d53.35  
4s35.31 4p34.56 4d31.67 4f27.47
5s19.58 5p17.34 5d(no data)  
6s8.44 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for holmium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s55618 [1]
L I2s9394 [1]
L II2p1/28918 [1]
L III2p3/28071 [1]
M I3s2128 [1]
M II3p1/21923 [1]
M III3p3/21741 [1]
M IV3d3/21392 [1]
M V3d5/21351 [1]
N I4s432.4 [2]
N II4p1/2343.5 [1]
N III4p3/2308.2 [2]
N IV4d3/2160 [2]
N V4d5/2160 [2]
N VI4f5/28.6 [2]
N VII4f7/25.2 [2]
O I5s49.3 [2]
O II5p1/230.8 [2]
O III5p3/224.1 [2]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.