โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Polonium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้‡™
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Polonium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Polonium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Polonium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืคื•ืœื•ื ื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Polonio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใƒใƒญใƒ‹ใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Polônio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะŸะพะปะพะฝะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Polonio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Polonium

Polonium: properties of free atoms

Polonium atoms have 84 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.32.18.6.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral polonium is  [Xe].4f14.5d10.6s2.6p4 and the term symbol is  3P2.

Kossel shell structure of polonium
Schematic electronic configuration of polonium.
Kossel shell structure of polonium
The Kossel shell structure of polonium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of polonium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of polonium is 183.3 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of polonium are given below.

Ionisation energies of polonium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st811.8
2nd1860
3rd2630
4th3470
5th5500
6th6670
7th10400
8th12100
9th14100
10th16000
11th17900
12th20200 (calculated)
13th22700
14th24800
15th27100
16th29300
17th40100
18th42800
19th45600
20th48400
21st54000
Ionisation energies of polonium
Ionisation energies of polonium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for polonium
1s82.38  
2s61.92 2p79.46  
3s59.62 3p60.71 3d70.57  
4s48.52 4p47.67 4d47.67 4f46.16
5s32.02 5p30.02 5d25.30  
6s16.33 6p14.22  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for polonium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s93105 [1]
L I2s16939 [1]
L II2p1/216244 [1]
L III2p3/213814 [1]
M I3s4149 [1]
M II3p1/23854 [1]
M III3p3/23302 [1]
M IV3d3/22798 [1]
M V3d5/22683 [1]
N I4s995 [2]
N II4p1/2851 [2]
N III4p3/2705 [2]
N IV4d3/2500 [2]
N V4d5/2473 [2]
N VI4f5/2184 [2]
N VII4f7/2184 [2]
O I5s177 [2]
O II5p1/2132 [2]
O III5p3/2104 [2]
O IV5d3/231 [2]
O V5d5/231 [2]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.