โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Erbium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้‰บ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Erbium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Erbium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Erbium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืืจื‘ื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Erbio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใ‚จใƒซใƒ“ใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Érbio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะญั€ะฑะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Erbio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Erbium

Erbium: properties of free atoms

Erbium atoms have 68 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.30.8.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral erbium is  [Xe].4f12.6s2 and the term symbol is  3H6.

Kossel shell structure of erbium
Schematic electronic configuration of erbium.
Kossel shell structure of erbium
The Kossel shell structure of erbium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of erbium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of erbium is 50 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of erbium are given below.

Ionisation energies of erbium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st589.30
2nd1149.7
3rd2190
4th4090
5th6280
6th9260
7th11000
8th12600
9th15200
10th17100
11th19400
12th22700 (calculated)
13th25900
14th28000
15th30000
16th33300
17th36800
18th40000
19th43400
20th46900
21st50200
Ionisation energies of erbium
Ionisation energies of erbium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for erbium
1s66.67  
2s50.20 2p63.65  
3s47.08 3p47.61 3d54.36  
4s36.23 4p35.11 4d32.27 4f27.98
5s19.72 5p17.47 5d(no data)  
6s8.48 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for erbium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s57486 [1]
L I2s9751 [1]
L II2p1/29264 [1]
L III2p3/28358 [1]
M I3s2206 [1]
M II3p1/22006 [1]
M III3p3/21812 [1]
M IV3d3/21453 [1]
M V3d5/21409 [1]
N I4s449.8 [2]
N II4p1/2366.2 [1]
N III4p3/2320.2 [2]
N IV4d3/2167.6 [2]
N V4d5/2167.6 [2]
N VI4f5/2 -
N VII4f7/24.7 [2]
O I5s50.6 [2]
O II5p1/231.4 [2]
O III5p3/224.7 [2]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.