โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Plutonium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้ˆฝ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Plutonium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Plutonium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Plutonium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืคืœื•ื˜ื•ื ื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Plutonio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใƒ—ใƒซใƒˆใƒ‹ใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Plutônio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะŸะปัƒั‚ะพะฝะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Plutonio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Plutonium

Plutonium: properties of free atoms

Plutonium atoms have 94 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.32.24.8.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral plutonium is  [Rn].5f6.7s2 and the term symbol is  7F0.

Kossel shell structure of plutonium
Schematic electronic configuration of plutonium.
Kossel shell structure of plutonium
The Kossel shell structure of plutonium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of plutonium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of plutonium is (no data) kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of plutonium are given below.

Ionisation energies of plutonium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st581.40
2nd1110
3rd2040
4th3380
5th4730
6th7720
7th9170
8th10500
9th12000
10th13400
11th15300
12th17300 (calculated)
13th19300
14th21100
15th24900
16th26800
17th37500
18th40100
19th42800
20th45700
21st48500
Ionisation energies of plutonium
Ionisation energies of plutonium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for plutonium
1s(no data)  
2s(no data) 2p(no data)  
3s(no data) 3p(no data) 3d(no data)  
4s(no data) 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for plutonium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.