โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Lead
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้‰›
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Lood
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Plomb
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Blei
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืขื•ืคืจืช
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Piombo
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ้‰›
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Conduzir
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะกะฒะธะฝะตั†
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Plomo
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Bly

Lead: properties of free atoms

Lead atoms have 82 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.32.18.4.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral lead is  [Xe].4f14.5d10.6s2.6p2 and the term symbol is  3P0.

Kossel shell structure of lead
Schematic electronic configuration of lead.
Kossel shell structure of lead
The Kossel shell structure of lead.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of lead.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of lead is 35.1 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of lead are given below.

Ionisation energies of lead
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st715.60
2nd1450.42
3rd3081.48
4th4084.47
5th6640
6th8000
7th9660
8th11600
9th13300
10th15200
11th17600
12th19600 (calculated)
13th21600
14th23600
15th32600
16th36100
17th38700
18th41200
19th46100
20th48900
21st55000
Ionisation energies of lead
Ionisation energies of lead.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for lead
1s80.42  
2s60.43 2p77.48  
3s58.15 3p59.15 3d68.55  
4s46.89 4p46.03 4d44.32 4f43.97
5s30.13 5p28.03 5d23.15  
6s14.10 6p12.39  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for lead. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s88005 [1]
L I2s15861 [1]
L II2p1/215200 [1]
L III2p3/213035 [1]
M I3s3851 [1]
M II3p1/23554 [1]
M III3p3/23066 [1]
M IV3d3/22586 [1]
M V3d5/22484 [1]
N I4s891.8 [3]
N II4p1/2761.9 [3]
N III4p3/2643.5 [3]
N IV4d3/2434.3 [3]
N V4d5/2412.2 [3]
N VI4f5/2141.7 [3]
N VII4f7/2136.9 [3]
O I5s147 [2, values derived from reference 1]
O II5p1/2106.4 [3]
O III5p3/283.3 [3]
O IV5d3/220.7 [3]
O V5d5/218.1 [3]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.