โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Lawrencium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้’
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Lawrencium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Lawrencium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Lawrencium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืœื•ืจื ืฆื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Lawrentio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใƒญใƒผใƒฌใƒณใ‚ทใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Lawrencium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะ›ะพัƒั€ะตะฝัะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Lawrencio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Lawrencium

Lawrencium: properties of free atoms

Lawrencium atoms have 103 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.32.32.9.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral lawrencium is  [Rn].5f14.6d1.7s2 (a guess based upon that of lutetium) and the term symbol is  2P1/2 (tentative).

Kossel shell structure of lawrencium
Schematic electronic configuration of lawrencium.
Kossel shell structure of lawrencium
The Kossel shell structure of lawrencium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of lawrencium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of lawrencium is (no data) kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of lawrencium are given below.

Ionisation energies of lawrencium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st479
2nd1400
3rd2100
4th4210
5th5400
6th7720
7th9260
8th11700
9th13800
10th15900
11th19000
12th20800 (calculated)
13th23500
14th26000
15th28000
16th31100
17th33200
18th36100
19th38900
20th41600
21st44300
Ionisation energies of lawrencium
Ionisation energies of lawrencium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for lawrencium
1s(no data)  
2s(no data) 2p(no data)  
3s(no data) 3p(no data) 3d(no data)  
4s(no data) 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for lawrencium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.