โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Protactinium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้ท
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Protactinium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Protactinium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Protactinium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืคืจื•ื˜ืงื˜ื™ื ื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Protoattinio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใƒ—ใƒญใƒˆใ‚ขใ‚ฏใƒใƒ‹ใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Protactínio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะŸั€ะพั‚ะฐะบั‚ะธะฝะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Protactinio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Protaktinium

Protactinium: properties of free atoms

Protactinium atoms have 91 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.32.20.9.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral protactinium is  [Rn].5f2.6d1.7s2 and the term symbol is  4K11/2.

Kossel shell structure of protactinium
Schematic electronic configuration of protactinium.
Kossel shell structure of protactinium
The Kossel shell structure of protactinium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of protactinium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of protactinium is (no data) kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of protactinium are given below.

Ionisation energies of protactinium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st568
2nd1150
3rd1790
4th2980
5th4270
6th6950
7th8210
8th9540
9th10700
10th13200
11th14800
12th18000 (calculated)
13th19600
14th28200
15th30500
16th33000
17th35600
18th38100
19th40800
20th44400
21st47100
Ionisation energies of protactinium
Ionisation energies of protactinium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for protactinium
1s(no data)  
2s(no data) 2p(no data)  
3s(no data) 3p(no data) 3d(no data)  
4s(no data) 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for protactinium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s112601 [1]
L I2s21105 [1]
L II2p1/220314 [1]
L III2p3/216733 [1]
M I3s5367 [1]
M II3p1/25001 [1]
M III3p3/24174 [1]
M IV3d3/23611 [1]
M V3d5/23442 [1]
N I4s1387 [2]
N II4p1/21224 [2]
N III4p3/21007 [2]
N IV4d3/2743 [2]
N V4d5/2708 [2]
N VI4f5/2371 [2]
N VII4f7/2360 [2]
O I5s310 [2]
O II5p1/2232 [2]
O III5p3/2232 [2]
O IV5d3/294 [2]
O V5d5/294 [2]
P I6s -
P II6p1/2 -
P III6p3/2 -

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.