โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Aluminium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้‹
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Aluminium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Aluminium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Aluminium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืืœื•ืžื™ื ื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Alluminio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใ‚ขใƒซใƒŸใƒ‹ใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Alumínio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะะปัŽะผะธะฝะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Aluminio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Aluminium

Aluminium: properties of free atoms

Aluminium atoms have 13 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.3.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral aluminium is  [Ne].3s2.3p1 and the term symbol is  2P1/2.

Kossel shell structure of aluminium
Schematic electronic configuration of aluminium.
Kossel shell structure of aluminium
The Kossel shell structure of aluminium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of aluminium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of aluminium is 42.5 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of aluminium are given below.

Ionisation energies of aluminium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st577.54
2nd1816.68
3rd2744.78
4th11577.50
5th14841.9
6th18379
7th23326
8th27464
9th31860
10th38464
11th42647
12th201266 (calculated)
13th222316
Ionisation energies of aluminium
Ionisation energies of aluminium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for aluminium
1s12.5910  
2s8.21 2p8.96  
3s4.12 3p4.07 3d(no data)  
4s(no data) 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for aluminium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s1559 [1]
L I2s117.8 [2]
L II2p1/272.9 [2]
L III2p3/272.5 [2]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.