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  • 🇬🇧 Titanium
  • 🇨🇳 鈦
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  • 🇫🇷 Titane
  • 🇩🇪 Titan
  • 🇮🇱 טיטניום
  • 🇮🇹 Titanio
  • 🇯🇵 チタン
  • 🇵🇹 Titânio
  • 🇷🇺 Титан
  • 🇪🇸 Titanio
  • 🇸🇪 Titan

Titanium: properties of free atoms

Titanium atoms have 22 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.10.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral titanium is  [Ar].3d2.4s2 and the term symbol is  3F2.

Kossel shell structure of titanium
Schematic electronic configuration of titanium.
Kossel shell structure of titanium
The Kossel shell structure of titanium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of titanium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of titanium is 7.6 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of titanium are given below.

Ionisation energies of titanium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st658.81
2nd1309.84
3rd2652.55
4th4174.65
5th9580.9
6th11530
7th13570
8th16450
9th18530
10th20830
11th25580
12th28130 (inferred)
13th76000
14th83360
15th91130
16th101000
17th109000
18th118000
19th130000
20th137516
21st602939
Ionisation energies of titanium
Ionisation energies of titanium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for titanium
1s21.4409  
2s15.38 2p18.06  
3s11.03 3p10.10 3d8.14  
4s4.82 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for titanium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s4966 [1]
L I2s560.9 [3]
L II2p1/2460.2 [3]
L III2p3/2453.8 [3]
M I3s58.7 [3]
M II3p1/232.6 [3]
M III3p3/232.6 [3]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.