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  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Rhodium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้Š 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Rhodium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Rhodium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Rhodium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืจื•ื“ื™ื•ื
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  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใƒญใ‚ธใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Ródio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะ ะพะดะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Rodio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Rodium

Rhodium: properties of free atoms

Rhodium atoms have 45 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.16.1.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral rhodium is  [Kr].4d85s1 and the term symbol is  4F9/2.

Kossel shell structure of rhodium
Schematic electronic configuration of rhodium.
Kossel shell structure of rhodium
The Kossel shell structure of rhodium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of rhodium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of rhodium is 109.7 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of rhodium are given below.

Ionisation energies of rhodium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st719.67
2nd1744
3rd2997
4th4052
5th6079
6th7719
7th9359
8th11110
9th13030
10th20020
11th22000
12th24320 (calculated)
13th26700
14th29500
15th32000
16th37600
17th40100
18th71300
19th76600
20th82700
21st88900
Ionisation energies of rhodium
Ionisation energies of rhodium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for rhodium
1s44.08  
2s33.15 2p40.94  
3s28.44 3p28.15 3d30.41  
4s18.58 4p17.14 4d13.44 4f(no data)
5s6.64 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for rhodium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s23220 [1]
L I2s3412 [1]
L II2p1/23146 [1]
L III2p3/23004 [1]
M I3s628.1 [3]
M II3p1/2521.3 [3]
M III3p3/2496.5 [3]
M IV3d3/2311.9 [3]
M V3d5/2307.2 [3]
N I4s81.4 [2, values derived from reference 1]
N II4p1/250.5 [3]
N III4p3/247.3 [3]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.