โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Praseodymium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Praseodymium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Praséodyme
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Praseodym
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืคืจืกื™ืื•ื“ื™ืžื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Praseodimio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใƒ—ใƒฉใ‚ปใ‚ชใ‚ธใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Praseodímio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะŸั€ะฐะทะตะพะดะธะผ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Praseodimio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Praseodym

Praseodymium: properties of free atoms

Praseodymium atoms have 59 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.21.8.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral praseodymium is  [Xe].4f3.6s2 and the term symbol is  4I9/2.

Kossel shell structure of praseodymium
Schematic electronic configuration of praseodymium.
Kossel shell structure of praseodymium
The Kossel shell structure of praseodymium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of praseodymium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of praseodymium is 50 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of praseodymium are given below.

Ionisation energies of praseodymium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st527.79
2nd1025.7
3rd2086.37
4th3761.1
5th5550
6th7910
7th9360
8th10800
9th12600
10th14300
11th15600
12th18900 (calculated)
13th20900
14th33800
15th36500
16th39800
17th42900
18th46100
19th49800
20th53500
21st56900
Ionisation energies of praseodymium
Ionisation energies of praseodymium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for praseodymium
1s57.83  
2s43.46 2p54.77  
3s39.50 3p39.82 3d45.15  
4s30.33 4p29.06 4d26.30 4f21.10
5s17.61 5p15.28 5d(no data)  
6s7.75 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for praseodymium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s41991 [1]
L I2s6835 [1]
L II2p1/26440 [1]
L III2p3/25964 [1]
M I3s1511 [1]
M II3p1/21337 [1]
M III3p3/21242 [1]
M IV3d3/2948.3 [2]
M V3d5/2928.8 [2]
N I4s304.5 [1]
N II4p1/2236.3 [1]
N III4p3/2217.6 [1]
N IV4d3/2115.1 [2]
N V4d5/2115.1 [2]
N VI4f5/22 [1]
N VII4f7/22 [1]
O I5s37.4 [1]
O II5p1/222.3 [1]
O III5p3/222.3 [1]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.