โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Samarium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้‡ค
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Samarium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Samarium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Samarium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืกืžืจื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Samario
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใ‚ตใƒžใƒชใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Samário
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะกะฐะผะฐั€ะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Samario
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Samarium

Samarium: properties of free atoms

Samarium atoms have 62 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.24.8.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral samarium is  [Xe].4f6.6s2 and the term symbol is  7F0.

Kossel shell structure of samarium
Schematic electronic configuration of samarium.
Kossel shell structure of samarium
The Kossel shell structure of samarium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of samarium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of samarium is 50 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of samarium are given below.

Ionisation energies of samarium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st544.54
2nd1068.9
3rd2270
4th4020
5th6050
6th8390
7th9940
8th11400
9th13600
10th15200
11th17300
12th20100 (calculated)
13th22900
14th24800
15th26600
16th29600
17th45700
18th48800
19th52400
20th56100
21st59500
Ionisation energies of samarium
Ionisation energies of samarium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for samarium
1s60.78  
2s45.73 2p57.73  
3s42.03 3p42.42 3d48.23  
4s32.29 4p31.09 4d28.24 4f23.53
5s18.25 5p16.28 5d(no data)  
6s8.01 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for samarium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s46834 [1]
L I2s7737 [1]
L II2p1/27312 [1]
L III2p3/26716 [1]
M I3s1723 [1]
M II3p1/21541 [1]
M III3p3/21419.8 [1]
M IV3d3/21110.9 [2]
M V3d5/21083.4 [2]
N I4s347.2 [2]
N II4p1/2265.6 [1]
N III4p3/2247.4 [1]
N IV4d3/2129 [1]
N V4d5/2129 [1]
N VI4f5/25.2 [1]
N VII4f7/25.2 [1]
O I5s37.4 [1]
O II5p1/221.3 [1]
O III5p3/221.3 [1]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.