โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Chlorine
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ๆฐฏ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Chloor
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Chlore
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Chlor
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ื›ืœื•ืจ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Cloro
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ๅกฉ็ด 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Cloro
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะฅะปะพั€
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Cloro
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Klor

Chlorine: properties of free atoms

Chlorine atoms have 17 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.7.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral chlorine is  [Ne].3s2.3p5 and the term symbol is  2P3/2.

Kossel shell structure of chlorine
Schematic electronic configuration of chlorine.
Kossel shell structure of chlorine
The Kossel shell structure of chlorine.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of chlorine.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of chlorine is 349.0 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of chlorine are given below.

Ionisation energies of chlorine
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st1251.19
2nd2297.67
3rd3840
4th5137
5th6530
6th9353
7th11019
8th33606
9th38676
10th44065
11th51137
12th57079 (inferred)
13th63320
14th72390
15th78080
16th352976
17th380759
Ionisation energies of chlorine
Ionisation energies of chlorine.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for chlorine
1s16.5239  
2s11.43 2p12.99  
3s7.07 3p6.12 3d(no data)  
4s(no data) 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for chlorine. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s2822 [1]
L I2s270 [2]
L II2p1/2202 [2]
L III2p3/2200 [2]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.