โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Chlorine
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ๆฐฏ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Chloor
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Chlore
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Chlor
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ื›ืœื•ืจ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Cloro
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ๅกฉ็ด 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Cloro
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะฅะปะพั€
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Cloro
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Klor

Chlorine: the essentials

Chlorine atoms have 17 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.7. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral chlorine is [Ne].3s2.3p5 and the term symbol of chlorine is 2P3/2.

Chlorine: description  

Chlorine is a greenish yellow gas which combines directly with nearly all elements. Chlorine is a respiratory irritant. The gas irritates the mucous membranes and the liquid burns the skin. As little as 3.5 ppm can be detected as an odour, and 1000 ppm is likely to be fatal after a few deep breaths. It was used as a war gas in 1915. It is not found in a free state in nature, but is found commonly as NaCl (solid or seawater).

Chlorine: physical properties

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Chlorine: heat properties

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Chlorine: electronegativities

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Chlorine: orbital properties

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Chlorine: abundances

More geological data...

Chlorine: crystal structure

Cl crystal structure
The solid state structure of chlorine is: bcc (body-centred cubic).

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Chlorine: biological data

Chlorine as chloride (Cl-) is essential for mammals and plants. Digestive juices in the stomache contain hydrochloric acid.

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Chlorine: uses

Uses...

Chlorine: reactions

Reactions of chlorine as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.

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Chlorine: binary compounds

Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of chlorine where known.

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Chlorine: compound properties

Bond strengths; lattice energies of chlorine halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.

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Chlorine: history

Chlorine was discovered by Carl William Scheele in 1774 at Sweden. Origin of name: from the Greek word "chloros" meaning "pale green".

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Chlorine: isotopes

Isotope abundances of chlorine
Isotope abundances of chlorine with the most intense signal set to 100%.

Both Chlorine isotopes, Cl-35 and Cl-37, are used to study the toxicity of environmental pollutant and are usually supplied in the form of NaCl.

More isotope and NMR data...

Chlorine: isolation

Isolation: it is rarely necessary to make chlorine in the laboratory as it is readily available commercially in cylindes. Chlorine is found largely in seawater where it exists as sodium chloride. It is recovered as a reactive, corrosive, pale green chlorine gas from brine (a solution of sodium chloride in water) by electrolyis. Electrolysis of molten salt, NaCl, also succeeds, in which case the other product is sodium metal rather than sodium hydroxide.

Na+ + Cl- + H2O → Na+ + 1/2Cl2 + 1/2H2 + OH-

In the laboratory under carefully controlled conditions, chlorine can be made by the action of an oxidizing agent such as manganese dioxide, MnO2, upon concentrated hydrochloric acid - the same reaction used by Scheele in 1774 when discovering chlorine.

MnO2 + 4HCl → MnCl2 + Cl2 + 2H2O