โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Dysprosium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้‘
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Dysprosium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Dysprosium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Dysprosium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ื“ื™ืกืคืจื•ืกื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Disprosio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใ‚ธใ‚นใƒ—ใƒญใ‚ทใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Disprósio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะ”ะธัะฟั€ะพะทะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Disprosio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Dysprosium

Dysprosium: properties of free atoms

Dysprosium atoms have 66 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.28.8.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral dysprosium is  [Xe].4f10.6s2 and the term symbol is  5I8.

Kossel shell structure of dysprosium
Schematic electronic configuration of dysprosium.
Kossel shell structure of dysprosium
The Kossel shell structure of dysprosium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of dysprosium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of dysprosium is 50 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of dysprosium are given below.

Ionisation energies of dysprosium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st573.03
2nd1123.8
3rd2210
4th3980
5th5990
6th8970
7th10600
8th12300
9th14700
10th16400
11th18500
12th21600 (calculated)
13th25000
14th26900
15th28900
16th32000
17th35300
18th38500
19th41600
20th44900
21st64100
Ionisation energies of dysprosium
Ionisation energies of dysprosium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for dysprosium
1s64.71  
2s48.71 2p61.68  
3s45.39 3p45.88 3d52.33  
4s34.59 4p33.83 4d31.02 4f26.54
5s19.30 5p17.13 5d(no data)  
6s8.34 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for dysprosium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s53789 [1]
L I2s9046 [1]
L II2p1/28581 [1]
L III2p3/27790 [1]
M I3s2047 [1]
M II3p1/21842 [1]
M III3p3/21676 [1]
M IV3d3/21333 [1]
M V3d5/21292 [2]
N I4s414.2 [2]
N II4p1/2333.5 [2]
N III4p3/2293.2 [2]
N IV4d3/2153.6 [2]
N V4d5/2153.6 [2]
N VI4f5/28 [2]
N VII4f7/24.3 [2]
O I5s49.9 [2]
O II5p1/226.3 [1]
O III5p3/226.3 [1]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.