โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Osmium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้‹จ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Osmium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Osmium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Osmium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืื•ืกืžื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Osmio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใ‚ชใ‚นใƒŸใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Ósmio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะžัะผะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Osmio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Osmium

Osmium: properties of free atoms

Osmium atoms have 76 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.32.14.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral osmium is  [Xe].4f14.5d6.6s2 and the term symbol is  5D4.

Kossel shell structure of osmium
Schematic electronic configuration of osmium.
Kossel shell structure of osmium
The Kossel shell structure of osmium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of osmium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of osmium is 106.1 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of osmium are given below.

Ionisation energies of osmium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st814.17
2nd1640
3rd2410
4th3960
5th5310
6th6760
7th8210
8th9840
9th16300
10th18300
11th20600
12th22700 (calculated)
13th26000
14th28800
15th31100
16th35400
17th39600
18th42100
19th45300
20th50200
21st55000
Ionisation energies of osmium
Ionisation energies of osmium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for osmium
1s74.53  
2s56.15 2p71.55  
3s53.43 3p54.25 3d62.47  
4s42.10 4p41.14 4d38.86 4f37.15
5s25.10 5p22.91 5d18.00  
6s10.32 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for osmium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s73871 [1]
L I2s12968 [1]
L II2p1/212385 [1]
L III2p3/210871 [1]
M I3s3049 [1]
M II3p1/22792 [1]
M III3p3/22457 [1]
M IV3d3/22031 [1]
M V3d5/21960 [1]
N I4s658.2 [3]
N II4p1/2549.1 [3]
N III4p3/2470.7 [3]
N IV4d3/2293.1 [3]
N V4d5/2278.5 [3]
N VI4f5/253.4 [3]
N VII4f7/250.7 [3]
O I5s84 [2]
O II5p1/258 [2]
O III5p3/244.5 [3]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.