โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Cadmium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้Ž˜
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Cadmium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Cadmium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Cadmium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืงื“ืžื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Cadmio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใ‚ซใƒ‰ใƒŸใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Cádmio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะšะฐะดะผะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Cadmio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Kadmium

Cadmium: properties of free atoms

Cadmium atoms have 48 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.18.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral cadmium is  [Kr].4d10.5s2 and the term symbol is  1S0.

Kossel shell structure of cadmium
Schematic electronic configuration of cadmium.
Kossel shell structure of cadmium
The Kossel shell structure of cadmium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of cadmium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of cadmium is 0 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of cadmium are given below.

Ionisation energies of cadmium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st867.77
2nd1631.40
3rd3615.1
4th4921
5th6551
6th8394
7th10130
8th12550
9th14470
10th16690
11th18810
12th21030 (calculated)
13th29400
14th31700
15th34500
16th37100
17th40600
18th43700
19th49500
20th52700
21st92900
Ionisation energies of cadmium
Ionisation energies of cadmium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for cadmium
1s47.03  
2s35.39 2p43.91  
3s30.84 3p30.69 3d33.61  
4s20.87 4p19.41 4d15.88 4f(no data)
5s8.19 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for cadmium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s26711 [1]
L I2s4018 [1]
L II2p1/23727 [1]
L III2p3/23538 [1]
M I3s772 [3]
M II3p1/2652.6 [3]
M III3p3/2618.4 [3]
M IV3d3/2411.9 [3]
M V3d5/2405.2 [3]
N I4s109.8 [3]
N II4p1/263.9 [3, one-particle approximation not valid owing to short core-hole lifetime]
N III4p3/263.9 [3, one-particle approximation not valid owing to short core-hole lifetime]
N IV4d3/211.7 [3]
N V4d5/210.7 [3]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.