โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Berkelium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้‰ณ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Berkelium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Berkélium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Berkelium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ื‘ืจืงืœื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Berkelio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใƒใƒผใ‚ฏใƒชใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Berquélio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะ‘ะตั€ะบะปะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Berkelio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Berkelium

Berkelium: properties of free atoms

Berkelium atoms have 97 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.32.27.8.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral berkelium is  [Rn].5f9.7s2 and the term symbol is  6H15/2.

Kossel shell structure of berkelium
Schematic electronic configuration of berkelium.
Kossel shell structure of berkelium
The Kossel shell structure of berkelium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of berkelium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of berkelium is (no data) kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of berkelium are given below.

Ionisation energies of berkelium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st598.00
2nd1150
3rd2080
4th3470
5th5400
6th6760
7th8680
8th11000
9th12500
10th14200
11th16500
12th18800 (calculated)
13th21000
14th23200
15th25000
16th26900
17th29200
18th32700
19th34800
20th48000
21st50800
Ionisation energies of berkelium
Ionisation energies of berkelium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for berkelium
1s(no data)  
2s(no data) 2p(no data)  
3s(no data) 3p(no data) 3d(no data)  
4s(no data) 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for berkelium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.