โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Americium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้‹‚
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Americium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Américium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Americium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืืžืจื™ืฆื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Americio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใ‚ขใƒกใƒชใ‚ทใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Amerício
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะะผะตั€ะธั†ะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Americio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Americium

Americium: properties of free atoms

Americium atoms have 95 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.32.25.8.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral americium is  [Rn].5f7.7s2 and the term symbol is  8S7/2.

Kossel shell structure of americium
Schematic electronic configuration of americium.
Kossel shell structure of americium
The Kossel shell structure of americium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of americium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of americium is (no data) kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of americium are given below.

Ionisation energies of americium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st576.38
2nd1130
3rd2090
4th3550
5th4820
6th6550
7th9170
8th10600
9th12100
10th13600
11th15700
12th17800 (calculated)
13th19900
14th21700
15th23300
16th27400
17th29400
18th40900
19th43500
20th46400
21st49300
Ionisation energies of americium
Ionisation energies of americium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for americium
1s(no data)  
2s(no data) 2p(no data)  
3s(no data) 3p(no data) 3d(no data)  
4s(no data) 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for americium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.