โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Ruthenium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้‡•
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Ruthenium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Ruthénium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Ruthenium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืจื•ืชื ื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Rutenio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใƒซใƒ†ใƒ‹ใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Rutênio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะ ัƒั‚ะตะฝะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Rutenio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Rutenium

Ruthenium: properties of free atoms

Ruthenium atoms have 44 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.15.1.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral ruthenium is  [Kr].4d75s1 and the term symbol is  5F5.

Kossel shell structure of ruthenium
Schematic electronic configuration of ruthenium.
Kossel shell structure of ruthenium
The Kossel shell structure of ruthenium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of ruthenium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of ruthenium is 101.3 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of ruthenium are given below.

Ionisation energies of ruthenium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st710.18
2nd1617
3rd2747
4th4342
5th5693
6th7333
7th8973
8th10610
9th17210
10th19100
11th21220
12th23640 (calculated)
13th26100
14th28600
15th33600
16th36300
17th64600
18th69800
19th75600
20th81500
21st87300
Ionisation energies of ruthenium
Ionisation energies of ruthenium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for ruthenium
1s43.09  
2s32.38 2p39.95  
3s27.60 3p27.22 3d29.36  
4s17.66 4p16.43 4d12.81 4f(no data)
5s6.48 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for ruthenium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s22117 [1]
L I2s3224 [1]
L II2p1/22967 [1]
L III2p3/22838 [1]
M I3s586.1 [2]
M II3p1/2483.3 [3]
M III3p3/2461.5 [3]
M IV3d3/2284.2 [3]
M V3d5/2280 [3]
N I4s75 [3]
N II4p1/246.3 [3]
N III4p3/243.2 [3]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.