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  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Barium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้‹‡
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Barium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Baryum
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Barium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ื‘ืจื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Bario
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใƒใƒชใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Bário
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะ‘ะฐั€ะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Bario
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Barium

Barium: properties of free atoms

Barium atoms have 56 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.18.8.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral barium is  [Xe].6s2 and the term symbol is  1S0.

Kossel shell structure of barium
Schematic electronic configuration of barium.
Kossel shell structure of barium
The Kossel shell structure of barium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of barium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of barium is 13.95 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of barium are given below.

Ionisation energies of barium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st502.85
2nd965.22
3rd3458.40
4th4530
5th5600
6th6850
7th8300
8th9750
9th12590
10th14140
11th23250
12th25770 (calculated)
13th28600
14th31400
15th34200
16th37600
17th40700
18th43900
19th47100
20th50200
21st62300
Ionisation energies of barium
Ionisation energies of barium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for barium
1s54.89  
2s41.25 2p51.81  
3s37.16 3p37.32 3d42.02  
4s27.92 4p26.80 4d23.78 4f(no data)
5s16.62 5p14.80 5d(no data)  
6s7.58 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for barium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s37441 [1]
L I2s5989 [1]
L II2p1/25624 [1]
L III2p3/25247 [1]
M I3s1293 [2, values derived from reference 1]
M II3p1/21137 [2, values derived from reference 1]
M III3p3/21063 [2, values derived from reference 1]
M IV3d3/2795.7 [3]
M V3d5/2780.5 [2]
N I4s253.5 [3]
N II4p1/2192 [1]
N III4p3/2178.6 [3]
N IV4d3/292.6 [3]
N V4d5/289.9 [3]
N VI4f5/2 -
N VII4f7/2 -
O I5s30.3 [3]
O II5p1/217 [3]
O III5p3/214.8 [3]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.