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Einsteinium: properties of free atoms

Einsteinium atoms have 99 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.32.29.8.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral einsteinium is  [Rn].5f11.7s2 and the term symbol is  5I15/2.

Kossel shell structure of einsteinium
Schematic electronic configuration of einsteinium.
Kossel shell structure of einsteinium
The Kossel shell structure of einsteinium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of einsteinium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of einsteinium is (no data) kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of einsteinium are given below.

Ionisation energies of einsteinium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st614.38
2nd1180
3rd2190
4th3740
5th5220
6th6850
7th9360
8th10900
9th13200
10th15100
11th17400
12th19900 (calculated)
13th22300
14th24300
15th26100
16th28400
17th30600
18th33000
19th35400
20th38400
21st40600
Ionisation energies of einsteinium
Ionisation energies of einsteinium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for einsteinium
1s(no data)  
2s(no data) 2p(no data)  
3s(no data) 3p(no data) 3d(no data)  
4s(no data) 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for einsteinium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.