โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Strontium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้ถ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Strontium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Strontium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Strontium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืกื˜ืจื•ื ืฆื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Stronzio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใ‚นใƒˆใƒญใƒณใƒใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Estrôncio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะกั‚ั€ะพะฝั†ะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Estroncio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Strontium

Strontium: properties of free atoms

Strontium atoms have 38 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.8.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral strontium is  [Kr].5s2 and the term symbol is  1S0.

Kossel shell structure of strontium
Schematic electronic configuration of strontium.
Kossel shell structure of strontium
The Kossel shell structure of strontium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of strontium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of strontium is 5.03 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of strontium are given below.

Ionisation energies of strontium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st549.47
2nd1064.26
3rd4137.63
4th5430.2
5th6822
6th8491
7th10030
8th11690
9th15280
10th17110
11th31270
12th34930 (calculated)
13th39400
14th43800
15th48100
16th54200
17th59000
18th64200
19th69700
20th74700
21st89900
Ionisation energies of strontium
Ionisation energies of strontium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for strontium
1s37.19  
2s27.90 2p34.03  
3s22.66 3p22.17 3d22.73  
4s13.44 4p11.93 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s6.07 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for strontium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s16105 [1]
L I2s2216 [1]
L II2p1/22007 [1]
L III2p3/21940 [1]
M I3s358.7 [3]
M II3p1/2280.3 [3]
M III3p3/2270 [3]
M IV3d3/2136 [3]
M V3d5/2134.2 [3]
N I4s38.9 [3]
N II4p1/221.6 [3]
N III4p3/220.1 [3]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.