โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Zinc
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้‹…
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Zink
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Zinc
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Zink
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืื‘ืฅ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Zinco
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ไบœ้‰›
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Zinco
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะฆะธะฝะบ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Cinc
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Zink

Zinc: properties of free atoms

Zinc atoms have 30 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral zinc is  [Ar].3d10.4s2 and the term symbol is  1S0.

Kossel shell structure of zinc
Schematic electronic configuration of zinc.
Kossel shell structure of zinc
The Kossel shell structure of zinc.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of zinc.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of zinc is 0 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of zinc are given below.

Ionisation energies of zinc
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st906.40
2nd1733.30
3rd3832.71
4th5747.9
5th7970
6th10420
7th12920
8th16780
9th19590
10th22960
11th26480
12th29990 (inferred)
13th40290
14th43750
15th47340
16th52100
17th55750
18th59170
19th67300
20th71140
21st178000
Ionisation energies of zinc
Ionisation energies of zinc.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for zinc
1s29.3245  
2s21.83 2p26.10  
3s16.22 3p15.37 3d13.88  
4s5.97 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for zinc. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s9659 [1]
L I2s1196.2 [2]
L II2p1/21044.9 [2]
L III2p3/21021.8 [2]
M I3s139.8 [2]
M II3p1/291.4 [2]
M III3p3/288.6 [2]
M IV3d3/210.2 [2]
M V3d5/210.1 [2]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.