โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Niobium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้ˆฎ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Niobium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Niobium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Niob
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ื ื™ื•ื‘ื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Niobio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใƒ‹ใ‚ชใƒ–
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Nióbio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะะธะพะฑะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Niobio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Niob

Niobium: properties of free atoms

Niobium atoms have 41 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.12.1.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral niobium is  [Kr].4d4.5s1 and the term symbol is  6D1/2.

Kossel shell structure of niobium
Schematic electronic configuration of niobium.
Kossel shell structure of niobium
The Kossel shell structure of niobium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of niobium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of niobium is 86.1 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of niobium are given below.

Ionisation energies of niobium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st652.13
2nd1382
3rd2416
4th3629
5th4880
6th9848
7th11490
8th13120
9th15360
10th17370
11th19320
12th23750 (inferred)
13th25900
14th46600
15th51100
16th56100
17th61400
18th66400
19th73100
20th78700
21st84600
Ionisation energies of niobium
Ionisation energies of niobium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for niobium
1s40.14  
2s30.13 2p36.98  
3s25.17 3p24.62 3d26.25  
4s15.28 4p14.08 4d11.24 4f(no data)
5s5.92 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for niobium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s18986 [1]
L I2s2698 [1]
L II2p1/22465 [1]
L III2p3/22371 [1]
M I3s466.6 [3]
M II3p1/2376.1 [3]
M III3p3/2360.6 [3]
M IV3d3/2205 [3]
M V3d5/2202.3 [3]
N I4s56.4 [3]
N II4p1/232.6 [3]
N III4p3/230.8 [3]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.