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  • 🇮🇱 כספית
  • 🇮🇹 Mercurio
  • 🇯🇵 水銀
  • 🇵🇹 Mercúrio
  • 🇷🇺 Ртуть
  • 🇪🇸 Mercurio
  • 🇸🇪 Kvicksilver

Mercury: properties of free atoms

Mercury atoms have 80 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.32.18.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral mercury is  [Xe].4f14.5d10.6s2 and the term symbol is  1S0.

Kossel shell structure of mercury
Schematic electronic configuration of mercury.
Kossel shell structure of mercury
The Kossel shell structure of mercury.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of mercury.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of mercury is 0 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of mercury are given below.

Ionisation energies of mercury
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st1007.07
2nd1809.76
3rd3325
4th4684
5th5905
6th7390
7th8970
8th11000
9th12900
10th14800
11th16700
12th18600 (inferred)
13th26700
14th29600
15th32000
16th34400
17th38800
18th41400
19th46000
20th51100
21st54000
Ionisation energies of mercury
Ionisation energies of mercury.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for mercury
1s78.46  
2s59.11 2p75.50  
3s56.54 3p57.52 3d66.52  
4s45.24 4p44.41 4d42.47 4f41.76
5s28.11 5p25.97 5d20.86  
6s11.15 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for mercury. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s83102 [1]
L I2s14839 [1]
L II2p1/214209 [1]
L III2p3/212284 [1]
M I3s3562 [1]
M II3p1/23279 [1]
M III3p3/22847 [1]
M IV3d3/22385 [1]
M V3d5/22295 [1]
N I4s802.2 [3]
N II4p1/2680.2 [3]
N III4p3/2576.6 [3]
N IV4d3/2378.2 [3]
N V4d5/2358.8 [3]
N VI4f5/2104 [3]
N VII4f7/299.9 [3]
O I5s127 [3]
O II5p1/283.1 [3]
O III5p3/264.5 [3]
O IV5d3/29.6 [3]
O V5d5/27.8 [3]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.