Mercury: geological information

Mercury only occurs rarely as the free element in nature. Overall, it is a rare element in the earth's crust. Its main source is cinnabar ore (HgS) from Spain and Italy. The Almaden mine in Spain has been in continuous operation since 400 BC. Other sources include Yogoslavia, Russia, and North America.

Abundances of mercury in various environments

In this table of abundances, values are given in units of ppb (parts per billion; 1 billion = 109), both in terms of weight and in terms of numbers of atoms. Values for abundances are difficult to determine with certainty, so all values should be treated with some caution, especially so for the less common elements. Local concentrations of any element can vary from those given here an orders of magnitude or so and values in various literature sources for less common elements do seem to vary considerably.

Abundances for mercury in a number of different environments. Use the links in the location column for definitions, literature sources, and visual representations in many different styles (one of which is shown below)
Location ppb by weight ppb by atoms
Universe 1 0.006
Sun 20 0.12
Meteorite (carbonaceous) 250 20
Crustal rocks 67 7
Sea water 0.05 0.0015
Stream 0.07 0.0004
Human (no data) (no data)

The chart above shows the log of the abundance (on a parts per billion scale) of the elements by atom number in our sun. Notice the "sawtooth" effect where elements with even atomic numbers tend to be more strongly represented than those with odd atomic numbers. This shows up best using the "Bar chart" option on the chart.

cartogram depicting abundance of elements in the earth's crust
A cartogram depicting the abundance of elements in the earth's crust. Squares for each element are distorted in proportion to the numerical value of the abundance.

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