โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Gallium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้Žต
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Gallium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Gallium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Gallium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ื’ืœื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Gallio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใ‚ฌใƒชใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Gálio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะ“ะฐะปะปะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Galio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Gallium

Gallium: properties of free atoms

Gallium atoms have 31 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.3.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral gallium is  [Ar].3d10.4s2.4p1 and the term symbol is  2P1/2.

Kossel shell structure of gallium
Schematic electronic configuration of gallium.
Kossel shell structure of gallium
The Kossel shell structure of gallium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of gallium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of gallium is 28.9 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of gallium are given below.

Ionisation energies of gallium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st578.84
2nd1979.41
3rd2964.58
4th6101.8
5th8299
6th10870
7th13590
8th16390
9th20360
10th23540
11th27020
12th30780 (calculated)
13th34350
14th45460
15th49090
16th52900
17th57870
18th61750
19th65320
20th73880
21st77890
Ionisation energies of gallium
Ionisation energies of gallium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for gallium
1s30.3094  
2s22.60 2p27.09  
3s17.00 3p16.20 3d15.09  
4s7.07 4p6.22 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for gallium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s10367 [1]
L I2s1299 [2, values derived from reference 1]
L II2p1/21143.2 [3]
L III2p3/21116.4 [3]
M I3s159.5 [3]
M II3p1/2103.5 [3]
M III3p3/2100 [3]
M IV3d3/218.7 [3]
M V3d5/218.7 [3]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.